Matter & Energy


Matter is composed of atoms or groups of atoms called molecules. The arrangement of particles in a material depends on the physical state of the substance. In a solid, particles form a compact structure that resists flow. Particles in a liquid have more energy than those in a solid. They can flow past one another, but they remain close. Particles in a gas have the most energy. They move rapidly and are separated from one another by relatively large distances.

Alphabetic list of Chemical Elements (C-D)

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Name: Cadmium
Symbol: Cd
Atomic Number: 48
Atomic Weight: 112.412
Group: Transition metals
Date Discovered: 1817
Discovered By: Friedrich Strohmeyer

Name: Calcium
Symbol: Ca
Atomic Number: 20
Atomic Weight: 40.078
Group: Alkaline earth metals
Date Discovered: 1808
Discovered By: Humphry Davy

Name: Californium
Symbol: Cf
Atomic Number: 98
Atomic Weight: (251)
Group: Actinide
Date Discovered: 1950
Discovered By: Glenn Seaborg, Stanley Thompson, Kenneth Street, Jr., and Albert Ghiorso

Name: Carbon
Symbol: C
Atomic Number: 6
Atomic Weight: 12.011
Group: Nonmetals
Date Discovered: prehistoric
Discovered By: unknown

Name: Cerium
Symbol: Ce
Atomic Number: 58
Atomic Weight: 140.115
Group: Lanthanide
Date Discovered: 1804
Discovered By: Jöns Berzelius and Wilhelm Hisinger, and independently by Martin Klaproth

Name: Cesium
Symbol: Cs
Atomic Number: 55
Atomic Weight: 132.9054
Group: Alkali metals
Date Discovered: 1860
Discovered By: Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff

Name: Chlorine
Symbol: Cl
Atomic Number: 17
Atomic Weight: 35.4528
Group: Halogens
Date Discovered: 1774
Discovered By: Karl Scheele

Name: Chromium
Symbol: Cr
Atomic Number: 24
Atomic Weight: 51.9962
Group: Transition metals
Date Discovered: 1797
Discovered By: Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin

Name: Cobalt
Symbol: Co
Atomic Number: 27
Atomic Weight: 58.9332
Group: Transition metals
Date Discovered: 1730
Discovered By: Georg Brandt

Name: Copper
Symbol: Cu
Atomic Number: 29
Atomic Weight: 63.546
Group: Transition metals
Date Discovered: prehistoric
Discovered By: unknown

Name: Curium
Symbol: Cm
Atomic Number: 96
Atomic Weight: (247)
Group: Actinide
Date Discovered: 1944
Discovered By: Glenn Seaborg, Ralph James, and Albert Ghiorso

Name: Darmstadtium
Symbol: Ds
Atomic Number: 110
Atomic Weight: (271)
Group: Transition metals
Date Discovered: 1994
Discovered By: team at the Heavy-Ion Research Laboratory, Darmstadt, Germany

Name: Dubnium
Symbol: Db
Atomic Number: 105
Atomic Weight: (262)
Group: Transition metals
Date Discovered: 1970
Discovered By: claimed by Albert Ghiorso and coworkers (disputed by Soviet workers)

Name: Dysprosium
Symbol: Dy
Atomic Number: 66
Atomic Weight: 162.500
Group: Lanthanide
Date Discovered: series 1886
Discovered By: Paul Lecoq de Boisbaudran