Matter & Energy


Matter is composed of atoms or groups of atoms called molecules. The arrangement of particles in a material depends on the physical state of the substance. In a solid, particles form a compact structure that resists flow. Particles in a liquid have more energy than those in a solid. They can flow past one another, but they remain close. Particles in a gas have the most energy. They move rapidly and are separated from one another by relatively large distances.

Converting Food to Usable Energy

Cellular respiration is a complex series of chemical reactions that harvests the energy trapped in the bonds of glucose sugar molecules and converts it into a chemical form that can be stored for later use. Humans and other animals obtain glucose sugar molecules from food, such as the fruits and grains shown here, while plants create glucose sugars in the process of photosynthesis. Essential to the survival of most organisms on Earth, cellular respiration yields the energy that makes our bodies function properly.