Matter & Energy


Matter is composed of atoms or groups of atoms called molecules. The arrangement of particles in a material depends on the physical state of the substance. In a solid, particles form a compact structure that resists flow. Particles in a liquid have more energy than those in a solid. They can flow past one another, but they remain close. Particles in a gas have the most energy. They move rapidly and are separated from one another by relatively large distances.

Higher Alcohols

Higher alcohols, those of greater molecular weight than ethyl alcohol, have many specific and general uses. Isopropyl alcohol is used extensively as a rubbing alcohol, butyl alcohol is a base for perfumes and fixatives, and others are important flavoring agents and perfumes. Polyhydric alcohols, those containing more than one 8OH group, are also important—as, for example, the trihydric alcohol known as glycerol.