Matter & Energy


Matter is composed of atoms or groups of atoms called molecules. The arrangement of particles in a material depends on the physical state of the substance. In a solid, particles form a compact structure that resists flow. Particles in a liquid have more energy than those in a solid. They can flow past one another, but they remain close. Particles in a gas have the most energy. They move rapidly and are separated from one another by relatively large distances.

British Thermal Unit

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British Thermal Unit, in science and engineering, a unit measurement of heat or energy, usually abbreviated as Btu or BTU. One Btu was originally defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 lb (0.45 kg) of water from 59.5° F (15.3° C) to 60.5° F (15.8° C) at constant pressure of 1 atmosphere; for very accurate scientific or engineering measurements, however, this value was not precise enough. The Btu has now been redefined in terms of the joule as equal to 1055 joules; in engineering, a Btu is equivalent to approximately 0.293 watt-hour.