Matter & Energy

Matter is composed of atoms or groups of atoms called molecules. The arrangement of particles in a material depends on the physical state of the substance. In a solid, particles form a compact structure that resists flow. Particles in a liquid have more energy than those in a solid. They can flow past one another, but they remain close. Particles in a gas have the most energy. They move rapidly and are separated from one another by relatively large distances.


Capacitance, ability of a circuit system to store electricity. The capacitance of a capacitor is measured in farads and is determined by the formula C = q/V, where q is the charge (in coulombs) on one of the conductors and V is the potential difference (in volts) between the conductors. The capacitance depends only on the thickness, area, and composition of the capacitor's dielectric.