Matter & Energy


Matter is composed of atoms or groups of atoms called molecules. The arrangement of particles in a material depends on the physical state of the substance. In a solid, particles form a compact structure that resists flow. Particles in a liquid have more energy than those in a solid. They can flow past one another, but they remain close. Particles in a gas have the most energy. They move rapidly and are separated from one another by relatively large distances.

Antioxidants in Industry

Antioxidants are also used in industry as product additives and in food processing and preservation. Industrial antioxidants slow or prevent oxidative damage that causes food to spoil, rubber to harden, fats and oil to change color or go rancid, and gasoline to oxidize. Foods that are commonly preserved with antioxidant additives include cheese, bread, and oil. Antioxidants used as food preservatives include vitamin C and the synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). These antioxidants are added to foods in concentrations of much less than 1 percent.