Matter & Energy


Matter is composed of atoms or groups of atoms called molecules. The arrangement of particles in a material depends on the physical state of the substance. In a solid, particles form a compact structure that resists flow. Particles in a liquid have more energy than those in a solid. They can flow past one another, but they remain close. Particles in a gas have the most energy. They move rapidly and are separated from one another by relatively large distances.

Elements

ElementSymbolAtomic NumberAtomic Weight1
Melting Point
(Degrees Celsius)
Boiling Point
(Degrees Celsius)
actiniumAc89227.02781050.3200. ±300
aluminumAl1326.98154660.372467.
americiumAm95(243)1172.2600.
antimonySb51121.75630.741750.
argonAr1839.948−189.2−185.7
arsenicAs3374.9216817. (at 28 atmospheres)613. (sublimates)
astatineAt85(210)302. (est.)337. (est.)
bariumBa56137.33725.1640.
berkeliumBk97(247)1050.2590.
berylliumBe49.012181278. ±52970.
bismuthBi83208.9804271.31560. ±5
bohriumBh107(262)
boronB510.812300.2550. (sublimates)
bromineBr3579.904−7.258.78
cadmiumCd48112.41320.9765.
calciumCa2040.08839. ±21484.
californiumCf98(251)900.1470.
carbonC612.011∼3550.4827.
ceriumCe58140.12799.3426.
cesiumCs55132.905428.40669.3
chlorineCl1735.453−100.98−34.6
chromiumCr2451.9961857. ±202672.
cobaltCo2758.93321495.2870.
copperCu2963.5461083.4 ±0.22567.
curiumCm96(247)1340. ±403110.
darmstadtiumDs110(271)
dubniumDb105(262)
dysprosiumDy66162.501412.2562.
einsteiniumEs99(252)857.
erbiumEr68167.261529.2863.
europiumEu63151.96822.1597.
fermiumFm100(257)1527.
fluorineF918.998403−219.62−188.14
franciumFr87(223)(27) (est.)(677) (est.)
gadoliniumGd64157.251313. ±13266.
galliumGa3169.7229.782403.
germaniumGe3272.59937.42830.
goldAu79196.96651064.432808.
hafniumHf72178.492227. ±204602.
hassiumHs108(265)
heliumHe24.0026<−272.2−268.934
holmiumHo67164.93041474.2425.
hydrogenH11.00794−259.14−252.87
indiumIn49114.82156.612080.
iodineI53126.9045113.5184.35
iridiumIr77192.222410.4130.
ironFe2655.8471535.2750.
kryptonKr3683.80−156.6−152.30 ±0.10
lanthanumLa57138.9055921.3457.
lawrenciumLr103(262)1627.
leadPb82207.2327.5021740.
lithiumLi36.941180.541342.
lutetiumLu71174.9671663.3395.
magnesiumMg1224.305648.8 ±0.51090.
manganeseMn2554.93801244. ±31962.
meitneriumMt109(266)
mendeleviumMd101(258)827.
mercuryHg80200.59−38.842356.58
molybdenumMo4295.942617.4612.
neodymiumNd60144.241021.3068.
neonNe1020.179−248.67−246.048
neptuniumNp93237.0482640. ±13902. (est.)
nickelNi2858.691453.2732.
niobiumNb4192.90642468. ±104742.
nitrogenN714.0067−209.86−195.8
nobeliumNo102(259)827.
osmiumOs76190.23045. ±305027. ±100
oxygenO815.9994−218.4−182.962
palladiumPd46106.421554.2970.
phosphorusP1530.9737644.1 (white)280. (white)
platinumPt78195.081772.3827. ±100
plutoniumPu94(244)641.3232.
poloniumPo84(209)254.962.
potassiumK1939.098363.25760.
praseodymiumPr59140.9077931.3512.
promethiumPm61(145)10423000. (est.)
protactiniumPa91231.0359<1600.4026.
radiumRa88226.0254700.1140.
radonRn86(222)−71.−61.8
rheniumRe75186.2073180.5627. (est.)
rhodiumRh45102.90551966. ±33727. ±100
roentgeniumRg111(272)
rubidiumRb3785.467838.89686.
rutheniumRu44101.072310.3900.
rutherfordiumRf104(261)
samariumSm62150.361072. ±51791.
scandiumSc2144.95591541.2831.
seaborgiumSg106(266)
seleniumSe3478.96217.684.9 ±1.0
siliconSi1428.08551410.2355.
silverAg47107.8682961.932212.
sodiumNa1122.9897797.81 ±0.03882.9
strontiumSr3887.62269.1384.
sulfurS1632.06112.8444.674
tantalumTa73180.94792996.5425. ±100
technetiumTc43(98)2200.4877.
telluriumTe52127.60449.5 ±0.3989.8 ±3.8
terbiumTb65158.92541356.3123.
thalliumTl81204.383303.51457. ±10
thoriumTh90232.03811750.∼4790.
thuliumTm69168.93421545. ±151947.
tinSn50118.69231.96812270.
titaniumTi2247.881660. ±103287.
tungstenW74183.853410. ±205660.
ununbiumUub112(285)
ununhexiumUuh116(292)
ununoctiumUuo118(294)
ununpentiumUup115(288)
ununquadiumUuq114(289)
ununtriumUut113(284)
uraniumU92238.02891132.3 ±0.83818.
vanadiumV2350.94151890. ±103380.
xenonXe54131.29−111.9−107.1 ±3
ytterbiumYb70173.04819.1194.
yttriumY3988.90591522. ±83338.
zincZn3065.38419.58907.
zirconiumZr4091.221852. ±24377.

1 Parentheses indicate most stable isotope.