Matter & Energy

Matter is composed of atoms or groups of atoms called molecules. The arrangement of particles in a material depends on the physical state of the substance. In a solid, particles form a compact structure that resists flow. Particles in a liquid have more energy than those in a solid. They can flow past one another, but they remain close. Particles in a gas have the most energy. They move rapidly and are separated from one another by relatively large distances.


Butadiene, synthetic chemical compound, used principally in the manufacture of synthetic rubber, nylon, and latex paints.

Most commercial butadiene is made by dehydrogenation of butene or of mixtures of butene and butane; it may also be made from ethanol. Because butadiene has high reactivity, it is useful in synthesis, particularly in polymerization reactions. A large percentage of automobile tires are made from Buna rubber, a copolymer of butadiene and styrene.

Butadiene is a colorless, gaseous hydrocarbon. It is liquefied by cooling to -4.4° C (24.1° F) or by compression to 2.8 atmospheres at 25° C (77° F).