Matter & Energy

Matter is composed of atoms or groups of atoms called molecules. The arrangement of particles in a material depends on the physical state of the substance. In a solid, particles form a compact structure that resists flow. Particles in a liquid have more energy than those in a solid. They can flow past one another, but they remain close. Particles in a gas have the most energy. They move rapidly and are separated from one another by relatively large distances.


Cider, sweet or fermented juice of apples, used as a beverage and for making vinegar. Fermented, or hard, cider contains only 2 to 3 percent solids, instead of 12 to 15 percent as in the apple juice, and 2 to 8 percent alcohol. Cider brandy, or applejack, is derived by distillation from fermented cider. It contains 40 to 50 percent alcohol.