Matter & Energy

Matter is composed of atoms or groups of atoms called molecules. The arrangement of particles in a material depends on the physical state of the substance. In a solid, particles form a compact structure that resists flow. Particles in a liquid have more energy than those in a solid. They can flow past one another, but they remain close. Particles in a gas have the most energy. They move rapidly and are separated from one another by relatively large distances.


Maltose, a sugar, formed by action of the enzyme diastase on starch. Maltose is soluble in water, slightly soluble in alcohol, and crystallizes in fine needles. It is dextrorotatory—that is, it rotates the plane of polarized light to the right. Upon hydrolysis it yields a single product, glucose. An easily digested sugar, maltose is used in preparing infant food and in beverages, such as malted milk. It is fermented by yeast and is important in the brewing of beer. For the action of maltose in the body, see Sugar Metabolism.